The Albanian in His Own Habitat. A Dated Portrait
Viorel Stănilă

Folkloric texts as well bring on the theme of the necessity to revenge: 

? (?)                                                   ?(?)

?Patru gioni di Dol?iani                       Four young men of Doliani

Suntu di Turţil?i vătămaţî                      Were murdered by the Turks.

Luaţă armurli şi fudziţî               Take up arms and run

Ş-la Turţilor s-lu plătiţî?              To get revenge on the Turks.?

(Padioti, 1998, p. 40)

The truth is that the freebooters, too, could claim revenge for some feat of thieving on the part of the caravaneers. That such dishonoring acts could also be attributed to the noble guild of caravaneers, the volume of another Aromanian, Petru Vulcan's Icons of Life, stands testimony:

?The caravaneers would earn considerable amounts of money, and it was not always in honorable principle, since money was entrusted to them by husbands from abroad in order to transmit it to the latters? wives, and sufficed it that the caravaneer be of bad faith and that he devised a lie, such as being pillaged by thieves, and the poor wife resigned in her virtue and prayed the Lord above for good health for the husband, so the second coming of the caravaneer would bring her some money. (?) Such cases were frequent by then (1878, the author?s note).? (Vulcan, 1912, p. 12)

It is precisely such situations that generated and rendered necessary special instruments of endorsing trust; the association of Albanians and caravaneers, so that the latter be beneficiary of non-aggression treaties  between the brigand tribe and the Albanian escort, treaties that were guaranteed by the besa, or the besa directly conferred to the Aromanian caravaneers as a return of complicity (for instance, the furnishing of arms and ammunition - Burileanu, 1906, p. 133) or merely the employment for the security of the convoy of armed people, more often than not thieves that accomplished their mission by knowledge of, or parentage to, the opposing camp.

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