Subjective timeline of the ?90s*
Petre Popovăţ


Between the 8th and the 28th of January, twenty political parties are founded. Their number will go up.

January 28 The National Peasant Christian Democrat Party (PNTCD) and the National Liberal Party (PNL) protest against the decision of FSN to run into the elections. FSN is supported by the workers and miners in the mining area Jiu Valley. Armed with clubs and other specific weapons they came for the first time to Bucharest. The slogan ?Death to the intellectuals!? is heard for the first time.

January 29 FSN supporters assault the headquarters of some opposition parties.

February 9 As a consequence of many anticommunist dissidents leaving the FSN Council, the Provisory Council of National Unity (CPUN) is established.

February 15 The Romanian Peasant?s Museum is created by government ordinance no. 130. Painter Horia Bernea is appointed director.

February 28 During ample street protests against FSN and the former apparatchiks and secret police officers leading it, miners come for the second time to Bucharest to intervene.

March 15-20 Violent confrontations between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians in Tg. Mure?

March 24 The Romanian Information Service (SRI) is founded and replaces the former ?Securitate? secret police.

April 22 University Square is occupied by anti-FSN forces who believe that FSN is just a successor of the Romanian Communist Party. The protest will establish a record of length (53 days in a row). Ion Iliescu calls the protesters ?hooligans?. The insult is turned into a title of honor. University Square is called ?Hooligania?. The protesters wear badges on which it is written ?hooligan?. The balcony of the University is open. People make speeches, sing and shout out slogans. University Square is declared ?Communism-Free Zone?. The leader of the movement is Marian Munteanu, president of the Students? League.

May 20 Parliamentary and presidential elections, validating the victory of FSN and Ion Iliescu.

June 13 Order forces attack the hunger-strikers who had put up their protest tents in the University Square. People are arrested. College students are beaten up. Confrontations with the police forces take place. State institutions are set on fire.

June 14-15 A new coming of the miners (?mineriada?) led by their union leader, Miron Cozma. All the persons present in the University Square, even passers-by with an ?intellectual look? (i.e. beard, glasses) are savagely beaten up. 185 persons are arrested and 560 wounded. The City Health Department acknowledges six dead. In reality there were more. On the 29th of June, unidentified bodies taken from the Forensic Science Institute are buried.

August 24-25 On the walls of the Architecture Faculty from the University Square one can read ?Square Tien An Men II?.

November 6 The Civic Alliance is founded.

December 25 Former King Michael I is not allowed to enter the country. A wave of protests follows the decision of the authorities.


January 23 Land Law is adopted, allowing the restitution of farming land expropriated from the peasants and given to the Soviet-style agricultural cooperatives.

February 6 Romania agrees with the dismantling of the military structures of the Warsaw Pact.

April 4-6 Iliescu and Gorbatchev sign the Romania-URSS Treaty.

July 20 Greater Romania Party (PRM) is founded. It is an extremist, nationalist, anti-Hungarian and anti-Semitic party led by Corneliu Vadim Tudor.

July 30. Privatization Law is adopted.

September 25-28 A new ?mineriada? led by Miron Cozma leads to the toppling of the executive. Acts of violence and vandalism take place. The result: three dead and 455 wounded. The miners ask (with no result) for the resignation of President Iliescu.

1 October Theodor Stolojan becomes the new prime-minister.

The Parliament adopts the Constitution adopted by the 8th of December referendum.

March 27-29 FSN splits in two between the supporters of Petre Roman and those of Ion Iliescu. The latter forms the Democratic National Salvation Front (FDSN), registered on the 29th of April.

April 25-27 King Michael I and other members of the Romanian royal family manage to come to Romania on Easter. In Bucharest they are greeted by almost one million enthusiastic persons.

September 27 Parliamentary and presidential elections validate the victory of FDSN and (in the second round) Ion Iliescu.

November 4 Nicolae Văcăroiu is appointed prime-minister.


February 1 Romania signs in Brussels the Europe Agreements; May ? the implementation of the commercial provisions within the European Agreement has been initiated, through an Interim Agreement.

September 28 Romania becomes a member of the Council of Europe.


May 17 President Iliescu signs the European Convention on Human Rights.

May 21 World Bank and G-24 (The Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development) give Romania loans of over 1 billion US dollars.

May 23 PN}CD reacts to a statement made by Ion Iliescu. He stated that adopting the land law is the greatest mistake of the past four years.

May 24 Opposition representatives condemn the statements of Ion Iliescu who criticized the judges who ruled in favor of the former owners of nationalized buildings.

June 20 Nationalized Building Law is adopted, without solving the issue of restitution of the buildings nationalized by the communist regime to the former owners.

August 11 The ?Caritas Scandal? bursts out. Caritas was a pyramid scheme. The owners stated that they were a charitable association which took money from people and gave it back 8 times more in a few months. Many citizens were at a loss. One million complaints were filled against the 600 such ?charity associations?.

September 13 Bucharest Court of Law decides the freeing of the former members of the Political Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party who where still incarcerated.

October 7 Former King Michael I and his wife Anna are stopped on the Otopen Airport and forbidden to enter the country. According to an official press-release, ?The Executive does not consider appropriate their presence in Romania?.

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Martor nr 1/1996
Martor nr 2/1997
Martor nr 3/1998
Martor nr 4/1999
Martor nr 5/2000
Martor nr 6/2001
Martor nr 7/2002
Martor nr 8-9/2003-2004
Martor nr 10/2005
Martor nr 11/2006
Martor nr 12/2007

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